پیشایندهای جذب توجه کاربران در بستر اقتصاد توجه (مورد مطالعه: شبکۀ اجتماعی اینستاگرام)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، دانشکدۀ مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد، دانشکدۀ علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 دکتری مدیریت رسانه، دانشکدۀ مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران (پردیس بین‌المللی ارس)

چکیده

مخاطبان هرروز با دامنۀ وسیعی از اطلاعات مواجه می‌شوند و با افزایش نفوذ شبکه‌های اجتماعی نیز این روند همچنان مسیر رشد خود را دنبال می‌کند. آنچه به‌عنوان آفت موفقیت شبکه‌های اجتماعی شناخته می‌شود، انفجار اطلاعات است که موجب کمیابی توجه می‌شود. این مطالعه با هدف تحلیل نقش عوامل مؤثر بر جذب توجه کاربران در بستر اقتصاد توجه در قالب مطالعه‌ای موردی روی شبکۀ اجتماعی اینستاگرام با روش پیمایش در جامعه هدف دانشجویان با نمونۀ 384 نفر صورت گرفته است. یافته‌های تحقیق نشان داد پنج عامل شامل تناسب محتوا، زمان‌بندی مناسب در ارائۀ اطلاعات، اعتبار منبع اطلاعات، طرح‌بندی و گرافیک وب‌سایت می‌تواند سبب جلب‌توجه بیشتر کاربران (دانشجویان) در شبکه‌های اجتماعی (در این مطالعه اینستاگرام) شود. با عنایت به بحث اقتصاد توجه، می‌توان قدرت تغییرجهت‌دادن توجه مخاطبان را به‌دست آورد. به‌جای کلیک‌کردن روی ویدیوی بعدی «توصیه‌شده برای شما» در شبکه‌های اجتماعی مانند یوتیوب یا پیمایش پست‌های توصیه‌شده در اینستاگرام، می‌توان مخاطبان را در موقعیت‌هایی قرار داد که در آن‌ با میل خود به محتوای مورد نظر توجه کنند؛ بنابراین مقاومت در برابر اقتصاد توجه دشوار است، اما اگر مخاطب به آنچه تماشا می‌کند، مرور می‌کند یا دوست دارد، توجه کند، آنگاه با مصرف‌کنندگان آگاه‌تر و باهوش‌تری مواجه خواهیم بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Antecedents of Attention Attraction in the Context of the Attention Economy (Case Study Instagram as a Social Network)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Taher Roshandel Arbatani 1
  • Bagher Sarookhani 2
  • Alireza Mohammadpour 3
1 Professor, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran
2 Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran
3 PhD Candidate in Media Management, University of Tehran (Aras International Campus)
چکیده [English]

Introduction: We simply need to be more sophisticated about the help we give to others. With the growth of technology-driven media such as social networks, people spend most of their attention on platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, and Instagram. Access to smartphones that can connect to the Internet has further fueled the growth of such social networks. These social networks have drastically changed the global information landscape. For example, news that used to be controlled by television networks is finding its way onto social media before it is broadcast on television. Social media consistently underestimates the importance of traditional media. As money is made from attracting attention, advertisers have shifted their focus from traditional media to the Internet. On Facebook, for example, numerous ads for goods such as clothing are distributed on the fringe to attract users' attention. The need to focus on the factors that influence audience attention is becoming more evident with the growth and development of media technologies, which has led to the emergence of the main topic of this study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of influencing factors on users' attention in social networks through a case study on Instagram.
Method: This study is “applied” research in the sense of the objective, "descriptive" research in the sense of the design, and a survey approach in the sense of the method. The conceptual model was developed based on the existing literature. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire based on the experimental data. The statistical population consisted of all the students of Tehran College in 2018, and using stratified random sampling, a sample of 384 students was considered. Moreover, Pearson correlation test and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data using SPSS version 22 software.
Findings:  The results showed that five factors, including relevance, timing, credibility, layout, and website graphics, can lead to higher user (student) attention on social media (Instagram in this study), In fact, these five variables may play a role in predicting the variable that attracts audience attention. It should be noted that no previous study in the field has empirically investigated the antecedents of audience attention in social networks, and this is the first study to investigate the crucial role of these variables in the field.
Conclusion: Considering that the appropriateness of content in social networks is important for users, content producers should provide the appropriate amount of information needed by their target users to optimize for users in various activities such as shopping, restaurant search, etc., on the one hand, and to prevent users from directing their attention to other social networks, on the other hand. For users, proper timing in providing information is one of the most important components that influence their attention. Therefore, updating the available information and content about specific products, services, or events, and being able to access it quickly through a simple search, can draw users’ attention to a specific social network, which has many potential benefits for content producers. More importantly, for users, the credibility of information sources and content producers determines the effectiveness of the information they receive. Thus, when content comes from well-known people (such as celebrities), users are more likely to trust the content. In addition, when people are looking for specific information about a particular event or topic, it is important that the content provider or producer has expertise, knowledge, and understanding of the topic to increase the acceptance of that content by users. Since layout plays an important role in attracting the audience’s attention, managers of social networks or channels should pay attention to designing the visual content of audio, video, or text productions to make them more attractive to users.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention economy
  • Attention management
  • Technology-Based Media
  • social networks
  • فرهنگی، علی‌اکبر، قراگوزلو، علیرضا و صلواتیان، سیاوش (1389)، «توجه، حکمرانی جدید در اقتصاد رسانه»، فصلنامۀ پژوهش‌های ارتباطی، سال هفدهم، شمارۀ 3: 91-114.
  • مرادی، خدیجه و یقموری، فائزه (1395)، «نقش تبلیغات تلویزیونی در جذب مخاطب: بررسی برنامۀ خندوانه، کتاب و زندگی»، کتاب مهر، دورۀ ششم، شمارۀ 19-20، 11-29.
  • مک‌کوایل، دنیس (1389)، نظریۀ ارتباطات جمعی. ترجمۀ پرویز اجلالی. چاپ سوم. تهران: دفتر مطالعات و توسعۀ رسانه‌ها.
  • مهدی‌زاده، سیدمحمد (1389)، نظریه‌های رسانه: اندیشه‌های رایج و دیدگاه‌های انتقادی، چاپ اول، تهران: نشر همشهری.
  • Abbott, W., Donaghey, J.Hare, J.and Hopkins, P. (2013), “An Instagram is worth a thousand words: an industry panel and audience Q&A”. Library Hi Tech News, No. 7: 1-6.
  • Alarcón-del-Amo, M. d. C., Lorenzo-Romero, C., & Gómez-Borja, M.Á. (2011), “Classifying and Profiling Social Networking Site Users: A Latent Segmentation Approach”. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, No. 9: 547-553.
  • Boyd, D. (2008), Taken Out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley.
  • Brandtzaeg, P. B., & Heim, J. (2011), “A Typology of Social Networking Sites Users”. International Journal of Web Based Communities, No. 1: 28-51.
  • Chatfield, T. (2013), “The attention economy: It costs nothing to click, respond and retweet. But what price do we pay in our relationships and our peace of mind? ” Retrieved from: https://aeon.co/essays/does-each-click-of-attention-cost-a-bit-of-ourselves.
  • García-Rapp, F. (2017), “Popularity markers on YouTube’s attention economy: the case of Bubzbeauty”. Celebrity Studies, No. 2: 228-245.
  • Gauvin, H. L. (2017), “Drawing listener attention in popular music: Testing five musical features arising from the theory of attention economy”. Musicae Scientiae, 3: 1-14.
  • Goldhaber, M. (2009), The Attention Economy Hypothesis. Goldhaber’s Blog Archive.
  • Iskold, A. (2007), Attention Economics: an overview, Availabe at: readwriteweb.com.
  • Jetter, M. (2017), “The effect of media attention on terrorism”. Journal of Public Economics, No. 153: 32-48.
  • Joly, L., Cornes, M., & Manthorpe, J. (2014), “Supporting the social networks of homeless people”. Housing, Care and Support, No. 4:198-207.
  • Kane, C. L. (2016), “GIFs that glitch: eyeball aesthetics for the attention economy”. Communication Design, No. 1-2: 41-62.
  • McFarlane, A., & Samsioe, E. (2020), “#50+ fashion Instagram influencers: cognitive age and aesthetic digital labours”. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, No. 3: 399-413.
  • Nelson-Field, K. (2020), Attention Economy and How Media Works. Palgrave Macmillan: Australia.
  • O'Connell, D. (2020), “The dynamics of congressional popularity on Instagram”. Online Information Review, No. 5: 995-1011.
  • Ouyang, Z., Wei, J., Xiao, Y., & Wang, F. (2017), “Media attention and corporate disaster relief: evidence from China”. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, No. 1: 2-12.
  • Poulakidakos, S.(2020), “The Greek Political Leaders on Instagram: Comparing Instagram Activity during Electoral and Non-electoral Periods”, Veneti, A. and Karatzogianni, A. (Ed.) The Emerald Handbook of Digital Media in Greece (Digital Activism and Society: Politics, Economy And Culture In Network Communication), Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 351-365.
  • Quinn, C., Quinn, M., Olinsly, A., & Quin, J. (2016), How information spreads in online social networks, in Kenneth D. Lawrence , Ronald K. Klimberg (ed.) Advances in Business and Management Forecasting (Advances in Business and Management Forecasting, Vol. 11), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 209-235.
  • Shih, T. J., Wijaya, R., & Brossard, D. (2008), “Media coverage of public health epidemics: linking framing and issue attention cycle toward an integrated theory of print news coverage of epidemics”. Mass Communication & Society, No. 11: 141–160.
  • Teixeira, T. S. (2014), “The rising cost of consumer attention: why you should care, and what you can do about it”. Harvard Business School, Working Paper 14-055.
  • Tufekci, Z. (2013), “Not this one: social movements, the attention economy, and microcelebrity networked activism”. American Behavioral Scientist, No. 7: 848-870.
  • فرهنگی، علی‌اکبر، قراگوزلو، علیرضا و صلواتیان، سیاوش (1389)، «توجه، حکمرانی جدید در اقتصاد رسانه»، فصلنامۀ پژوهش‌های ارتباطی، سال هفدهم، شمارۀ 3: 91-114.
  • مرادی، خدیجه و یقموری، فائزه (1395)، «نقش تبلیغات تلویزیونی در جذب مخاطب: بررسی برنامۀ خندوانه، کتاب و زندگی»، کتاب مهر، دورۀ ششم، شمارۀ 19-20، 11-29.
  • مک‌کوایل، دنیس (1389)، نظریۀ ارتباطات جمعی. ترجمۀ پرویز اجلالی. چاپ سوم. تهران: دفتر مطالعات و توسعۀ رسانه‌ها.
  • مهدی‌زاده، سیدمحمد (1389)، نظریه‌های رسانه: اندیشه‌های رایج و دیدگاه‌های انتقادی، چاپ اول، تهران: نشر همشهری.
  • Abbott, W., Donaghey, J.Hare, J.and Hopkins, P. (2013), “An Instagram is worth a thousand words: an industry panel and audience Q&A”. Library Hi Tech News, No. 7: 1-6.
  • Alarcón-del-Amo, M. d. C., Lorenzo-Romero, C., & Gómez-Borja, M.Á. (2011), “Classifying and Profiling Social Networking Site Users: A Latent Segmentation Approach”. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, No. 9: 547-553.
  • Boyd, D. (2008), Taken Out of Context: American Teen Sociality in Networked Publics. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley.
  • Brandtzaeg, P. B., & Heim, J. (2011), “A Typology of Social Networking Sites Users”. International Journal of Web Based Communities, No. 1: 28-51.
  • Chatfield, T. (2013), “The attention economy: It costs nothing to click, respond and retweet. But what price do we pay in our relationships and our peace of mind? ” Retrieved from: https://aeon.co/essays/does-each-click-of-attention-cost-a-bit-of-ourselves.
  • García-Rapp, F. (2017), “Popularity markers on YouTube’s attention economy: the case of Bubzbeauty”. Celebrity Studies, No. 2: 228-245.
  • Gauvin, H. L. (2017), “Drawing listener attention in popular music: Testing five musical features arising from the theory of attention economy”. Musicae Scientiae, 3: 1-14.
  • Goldhaber, M. (2009), The Attention Economy Hypothesis. Goldhaber’s Blog Archive.
  • Iskold, A. (2007), Attention Economics: an overview, Availabe at: readwriteweb.com.
  • Jetter, M. (2017), “The effect of media attention on terrorism”. Journal of Public Economics, No. 153: 32-48.
  • Joly, L., Cornes, M., & Manthorpe, J. (2014), “Supporting the social networks of homeless people”. Housing, Care and Support, No. 4:198-207.
  • Kane, C. L. (2016), “GIFs that glitch: eyeball aesthetics for the attention economy”. Communication Design, No. 1-2: 41-62.
  • McFarlane, A., & Samsioe, E. (2020), “#50+ fashion Instagram influencers: cognitive age and aesthetic digital labours”. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, No. 3: 399-413.
  • Nelson-Field, K. (2020), Attention Economy and How Media Works. Palgrave Macmillan: Australia.
  • O'Connell, D. (2020), “The dynamics of congressional popularity on Instagram”. Online Information Review, No. 5: 995-1011.
  • Ouyang, Z., Wei, J., Xiao, Y., & Wang, F. (2017), “Media attention and corporate disaster relief: evidence from China”. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, No. 1: 2-12.
  • Poulakidakos, S.(2020), “The Greek Political Leaders on Instagram: Comparing Instagram Activity during Electoral and Non-electoral Periods”, Veneti, A. and Karatzogianni, A. (Ed.) The Emerald Handbook of Digital Media in Greece (Digital Activism and Society: Politics, Economy And Culture In Network Communication), Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 351-365.
  • Quinn, C., Quinn, M., Olinsly, A., & Quin, J. (2016), How information spreads in online social networks, in Kenneth D. Lawrence , Ronald K. Klimberg (ed.) Advances in Business and Management Forecasting (Advances in Business and Management Forecasting, Vol. 11), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 209-235.
  • Shih, T. J., Wijaya, R., & Brossard, D. (2008), “Media coverage of public health epidemics: linking framing and issue attention cycle toward an integrated theory of print news coverage of epidemics”. Mass Communication & Society, No. 11: 141–160.
  • Teixeira, T. S. (2014), “The rising cost of consumer attention: why you should care, and what you can do about it”. Harvard Business School, Working Paper 14-055.
  • Tufekci, Z. (2013), “Not this one: social movements, the attention economy, and microcelebrity networked activism”. American Behavioral Scientist, No. 7: 848-870.