عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The sense of belonging organizes behaviors, lifestyle, social interactions, and health of the individual and community. Impairment of this feeling can lead to negative personal and social feelings, a decrease of sense of cooperation, commitment, and loyalty in social, political, economic matters and even in life, and ultimately deviation and crime. A prerequisite for the development of a society is having healthy citizens with a proper sense of social belonging. Accordingly, the present paper seeks to study the contexts of the formation of a sense of social belonging and recidivism by former criminals.
Method: This research has been conducted using the qualitative research method and methodology of Strauss and Corbin grounded theory. In the present paper, based on the criterion of inductive theoretical saturation, 27 former criminals referred to the after-care center of Kerman prison, including men and women, were selected by purposive sampling and interviewed in-depth. The data was analyzed according to the Strauss and Corbin method in three stages of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. In this qualitative research for validation have been used strategies of triangulation, member checking, and analytical comparisons.
Finding: In the process of information analysis, 43 concepts, 6 main categories, and 1 core category were extracted from the participants’ statements. The main categories of this research are: 1) social misery and trauma in childhood, 2) detachment from school and dropout, 3) lack of social ties and a sense of belonging to a correctional center, 4) lack of a sense of social belonging in family, 5) feeling of belonging to deviant and friendly relations, 6) recidivism. The core category of “lack of social ties and a sense of anti-social belonging by former criminals” indicates that the social ties of former criminals due to inappropriate contexts in life has led to a sense of anti-social belonging and deviation actions and repetition of the crime.
Conclusion: The extracted core category shows that the social ties of former criminalsin the context of life various stages were not formed properly, and were directed towards non-social and negative affiliations. Finally, the lack of social ties of former criminals in childhood, adolescence, family, and school and the feeling of belonging to the correctional center led to a sense of anti-social belonging and their tendency towards bonding and a sense of belonging to a group of deviant friends. The result of this situation is that they fell into the negative pole of recording and repetition of the crime. In general, the core category of “lack of social ties and a sense of antisocial belonging by former criminals” reflects the fact that if social ties and a sense of social belonging are not properly formed in important stages of a person’s life, it has detrimental consequences for them and society. Because it will overshadow other stages and interactions of life such as marriage, married life, making friends, and job. Former criminals’ experience of social segregation, in a variety of ways, lead to their readiness for antisocial activities. Family relationships and social networks are important areas of social exclusion that should be targeted primarily in policies and social work. As a result, the sense of social belonging and social bonds is largely dependent on the interpretations and experiences of individuals in everyday life.