عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The nomadic livelihood patterns are directly related to the conditions of their living environment, and so the main issue of the present article was how the situation of these patterns is in drought conditions between the Sistan and Balochistan Nomadic tribes.
Method: The present study was conducted with a combined methodological approach. Therefore, we have used qualitative techniques such as observation, conversation and documentary studies, as well as quantitative techniques such as survey.
Finding: According to the findings of this study, it is now possible to name at least six major livelihood patterns in this region and among its tribes: 1) Livelihood pattern of ranch; 2) Livelihood pattern of farming; 3) Livelihood pattern based on local industries and by-products sales; 4) livelihood pattern of labor-based; 5) Livelihood pattern based on service activities; 6) livelihood pattern based on receiving government support. The results of the study show that the current livestock and agriculture among the semi-inhabitants of the region is practically a marginal and declining activity. Local industries, mainly produced by nomadic women, are often responsive to their own needs, but they are forced to sell a part of it to help the family, which of course has no significant income; the production of other by-products, such as the mat, which is directly dependent on environmental facilities, is also scarce. Subsequent droughts have brought nomads into activities that are not commensurate with their cultural identity and personality, and they do so in spite of their inner desire and satisfaction; these include laboring and other services such as grocery shopping, and so on. In addition, the nomads now find it very difficult to survive without government support, and they see every help from the support agencies as the savior of their lives.
Results & Conclusion: In general, it seems that the nomadic communities of Sistan and Balochistan have become more and more distant from the old living patterns -which was also the basis for their differentiation and identification- and have been forced to accept patterns that are incompatible with their social structure and cultural context. Of course, it is clear that the current situation is due to several underlying factors and cannot be reduced to a single natural factor. On the other hand, we know that this society is full of capacity, and paying attention to them can play an important role in the development of the whole country and, of course, in improving their own situation. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the dimensions of the problem, and to take advantage of the active participation of the nomads, as soon as possible, carried out a series of compensatory measures, more than before.