عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: In recent decades, marriage and family formation have become part of the values and behavior patterns of social life. Our society has also undergone far-reaching changes in this field, which include the emergence of the phenomenon of cohabitation in the metropolis of Tehran. This way of life includes these dimensions: Coexistence of two genders under one roof, indefinitely, Absence of contracts and official and legal registration. Since the phenomenon of coexistence, like other social phenomena, can accept the conflict between tradition and modernity, in this study, the phenomenon of cohabitation is also considered from this point of view. And the approaches of two reference groups of clergymen and university professors as representatives of two traditional and modern attitudes to the phenomenon of cohabitation were used and analyzed.
Methods: This research aims to study the phenomenon of cohabitation from the perspective of spiritual and sociological experts. This was done through thematic methods and in-depth interviews with seven clergy and seven sociologists. The purposive sampling method was used to select the samples. The necessary information and data for this study were collected through free and in-depth interviews. In addition, the data were coded using MAXQDA software.
Finding: The findings show that the Clergymans consider the factors influencing the growth of cohabitation phenomenon to be: religious factors (lack of religious knowledge, not using the knowledge of clerics, unconventionality of temporary marriage, desanctification of religion and destruction of spirituality), cultural factors (imitating from the West, distortion of traditions and girls' custom and norm breaking), social factors (accepting the growth of coexistence and the influence of the media), economic factors (calculating and inappropriate employment conditions), political factors (decrease in pragmatism and not imposing punishment laws) and individual factors (elimination of sexual desires).
According to sociologists, the factors influencing the growth of cohabitation phenomenon are: social factors (individualism, growth of rationality, growth of modernity, social necessity and growth of negative family function), cultural factors (anonymity, lack of education, formation of emotional fluid relationship, acceptance of girl-boy friendship) , breaking tradition and attraction of cohabitation), economic factors (consumerism, economic instability and increasing living costs), individual factors (satisfaction with cohabitation life, fear of divorce and different personality traits).
Conclusion: Iranian society is still stagnating in the transition from tradition to modernity. and the challenge between tradition and modernity plagues its society. The impact of modernity and the reduction of the influence of traditions are among the factors that have led to the formation of a cohesive lifestyle in society. Thus, it can be said that the confrontation between tradition and modernity has led to the formation of different attitudes and the acceptance or rejection of this lifestyle. Considering the state of society and the influence of modernity, it is necessary that the institution of the family be changed in a way that is acceptable to the new generation.